|You can use the Google Ad Manager glossary to learn more about frequently used terms or features. Use the filter box below to find terms on this page. You can find reporting definitions here: dimensions and metrics.|
An ad request is sent by client-side code (such as GPT on a webpage) to an ad server. An ad request typically is transmitted to the server in the form of an HTTP or HTTPS request. The request is the first step of ad serving.
The process by which Ad Manager chooses the best ads to serve to an ad request, and then returns the corresponding creative code.
An ad slot is the HTML markup (usually between <div> tags) the defines where an ad appears. Ad slots can reference either unique ad units or, if on a single page, ad slots can also reference the same ad unit.
The network or entity from which advertising content is consumed by a given ad unit. Multiple sources may compete for display in a single unit (for example, AdSense or AdX as backfill challengers).
Discrete spaces on your site for ads. You can define an ad unit on your site with a name, description, and dimensions. An ad unit may sometimes be referred to as "inventory unit."
The mobile advertising ID for Android. Mobile advertising IDs allow developers and marketers to track activity for advertising purposes.
A Google service that can help you display relevant, unobtrusive Google ads on your website's content pages and earn money. (Visit the Google AdSense Help Center to learn more.)
AdSense (line item type)
Line item type used to target AdSense ad units to specific inventory and audiences.
An open-source initiative that aims to make the web better for all. The project enables the creation of websites and ads that are consistently fast, beautiful, and high-performing across devices and distribution patterns.
AMPHTML Ads load faster than standard ads and can be delivered anywhere on the web, not just on AMP pages. This applies AMP’s core philosophy of reliable fast performance and great user experience to ads.
An ad that stays fixed at the bottom of the user’s screen, even as the user scrolls up or down on the page. Swiping would let the user dismiss the ad in a mobile-friendly manner.
Ratio of width to height for a video or image.
The art work or file associated with a creative object.
Code that is split up into smaller pieces. Execution of the various pieces of code may "pause" or "wait" between each piece, allowing for other processing (such as rendering of other ads or page content) to be performed during the pauses.
The name of Facebook’s online advertising solution.
Allows a publisher to buy ad impressions (targeted to the publisher's own visitors) from other web or app properties.
Predicts the availability of inventory. Availability forecast is used in two ways: during the sales process to estimate how much inventory is available for sale; and when an ad is booked to verify that enough inventory is available for the ad. Forecasts consider impressions that have been reserved for other line items.
Inventory that has not been pre-sold or reserved. As a verb, "backfill" means to serve ads to this inventory. Backfill inventory is often monetized with ads sold by ad networks, via non-guaranteed campaigns, or in an auction. Also see Non-guaranteed.
A small (one pixel by one pixel) image displayed on a website or within other content. It forces the browser to make a request to another server so that server can read or write its own cookie (or otherwise track the web request). This allows you to record the basic actions of the user who is accessing the content.
Includes "reserved" and "remnant" inventory that has been entered into the system.
Bulk line items
Line item type used to fill unsold inventory. Bulk line items have delivery goals and deliver evenly by default.
Video bumper ads are short video ads that can play before or after a video ad or ad pod. They are often used to indicate that ads are either about to display, or to promote the next ad. Companion ads do not appear with bumper ads.
Groupings of domains/URLs for reporting purposes.
A small piece of code that allows you to track clicks for your third-party creatives.
The "program or script" supplied by the advertiser that is used to generate (i.e., rich media) an ad.
An advertiser, agency, or organization that buys ad space and supplies the creatives for line items. Each order is associated with a company, and you can invite company contacts to view reports about their campaigns. (Learn how to add a company profile.)
Targetable groups of videos that you can assemble based on filters or by selecting individual videos, or both. Bundles are automatically updated as new metadata that matches their criteria is ingested. For example, you could create a content bundle called "Kittens" based on a combination of metadata and manually-added videos, and then target ads for cat toys to that bundle.
A small text file containing a string of characters that is set on your computer when you visit a website. When you visit the website again, the cookie helps that site recognize your browser. Cookies may store user preferences and other information. DoubleClick cookies contain no personally identifiable information.
A value passed in ad requests, handled automatically by the GPT libraries and the GMA/IMA SDKs. The correlator is common to all ads on a page, but unique across page views. Ad requests with the same correlator value received close together in time are considered a single Page View for serving purposes.
Type of assignment used to specify characteristics of how the creative is served, such as the click-through URL, the position of the creative in a sequential rotation, and so on.
The assignment of one or more creatives to a line item.
The technique by which multiple creatives assigned to a line item are displayed, either evenly, weighted, sequential, or optimized.
Snippet of code that wraps around a creative when it is served. When Ad Manager serves a creative to an ad unit with (a) creative wrapper label(s) applied, it also inserts the creative wrappers into the code that is delivered to the webpage. You can use creative wrappers to implement third-party tracking software or for any other purpose.
Render your own native ads in app code. You can implement highly custom renderings that take full advantage of the functionality of Android and iOS.
Process whereby a creative is required to call to multiple third-party ad servers.
Configuring day and time targeting settings for line items. The process of dividing the day into different parts in order to run ads only during specific times.
Default ad impressions
A gray GIF system default ad (an “unfilled impression") will serve to inventory where no line items are targeted and the user will see a blank ad slot.
The process of Ad Manager showing ads.
The amount of impressions or clicks that a line item is contracted to deliver.
Gives information on which ads were delivered. When unexpected ads deliver, use the Delivery Inspector to find out why.
The priority level at which a line item is set to deliver. This can range from higher priorities (sponsorship and standard) to lower priorities (house).
Delivery progress bar
A graphic in the UI that indicates whether or not a line item is on target to achieve its goal.
The rate at which a line item is being delivered to users.
Density-independent pixels (dp)
Screen size is usually expressed in density-independent pixels, or dp. Here's a simple formula to convert screen pixels (px) to density pixels (dp):
dp = px * (160 / dpi)
Dots per inch (dpi) are pixels within an inch of the screen.
Designated Market Area. DMAs expose a specific regional market group to the same content or ads. They frequently cover one metropolitan area, in some cases grouping together multiple smaller cities. Many DMAs are available for targeting.
A network-level mechanism designed to maximize your remnant and Ad Exchange revenue without compromising reservations.
Both remnant and Ad Exchange line items are given a chance to serve if Ad Exchange/AdSense is eligible for the request (using line item targeting for Ad Exchange/AdSense or ad unit monetization for AdSense).
In the context of skippable ads: you have the ability to traffic reserve, CPM-based video ads that can be skipped or exited after a certain duration has elapsed. The "Skip" button appears after 5 seconds. If viewed to completion or for 30 seconds, whichever comes first, an "Engaged view" is counted in reporting.
A type of rotation of creatives, where all creatives in a line item are delivered in an approximately even proportion.
With true even delivery, an ad is shown at a constant rate throughout the campaign duration. If an ad needs to appear on a website or app several thousand times over a week (for example, 7000 times over a week) with a true even delivery, it would serve 1000 impressions of the ad each day. In contrast, frontloading of the ad campaign serves more impressions during the start of the campaign, and the serving rate gradually decreases as the ad approaches its serving goals.
A label that you can apply to a line item which prevents it from being delivered along with other line items that have the same label. For example, if you're doing business with both Airline X and Airline Y, you can apply the exclusion label 'airline' to their line items, which will prevent Airline X's line items from being shown on the same webpage at the same time as Airline Y's.
A cookie that's set by the domain the user is visiting instead of by a different, third-party domain.
The date range for an ad campaign to run.
A type of ad that floats on top of a page’s content. A floating ad can move with content as a user scrolls, or maintain a locked position on a page as a user scrolls.
A native ad size that allows more flexibility when styling your ad. Ad Manager automatically sizes the ad by filling the width of the enclosing column and adjusting the height as appropriate (just like a regular HTML div on your site).
An adjustment made to the anticipated traffic to your website or app. With Forecast adjustments, you can make changes so traffic patterns are better reflected in forecasting numbers. This is helpful when you create new content or you have unusual traffic spikes during high-profile events.
The process of estimating how much ad inventory a website or app will have in the future.
Targeting option that you can use if you don't want to define values in advance, or if you need to define more than 50,000 key-value pairs.
With dynamic targeting, you can have thousands of possible targeting values, because there's no need to define each value ahead of time. When you need to target a specific value, you can simply enter that targeting value into your line item.
Once you target a line item to a dynamic targeting value, the value will be saved and you'll be able to select it from a list the next time you target a line item to that key.
Helps to limit how often an ad from a line item is served to the same user in a specific period of time. Supported time ranges are minutes, hours, days, weeks, or months, and multiple capping rules may be applied. For example, you can set a frequency cap limiting the same user to one impression per day and three impressions per week.
If an ad needs to appear on a website or app several thousand times over a week (for example, 7000 times per week) and the "Frontloaded" delivery option is selected, the platform will try to serve 25% extra ad impressions at the start of the week (1250 impressions) and continue to serve more than necessary until later in the week when delivery will tail off until all 7000 impressions have been served.
Google Publisher Console
Provides troubleshooting tips and information about ad performance to publishers, overlaid directly onto their website or app. It’s another way for publishers to retrieve information and take action on their Google ads as they browse their site.
Google Publisher Tag (GPT)
An extension, in days, of a line item's end date. The line item will continue delivering until it reaches its goal or the end of its grace period, whichever comes first.
Line items that are contractually obligated to deliver a requested number of impressions. Ad Manager ensures these items deliver in full through reserving inventory for the line item. Contrast this with Non-guaranteed line items, which are used to fill "leftover" or remnant impressions.
Creative image files you can upload to Google for free. Google will then manage these files and serve them directly to your site visitors.
A line item type typically used for ads that promote products and services chosen by you.
A value assigned to a particular user or device and is used to assist in ad serving functionality. The identifier contains no personally identifiable Information, can be reset by the user at any time, and respects user options to limit or opt out of ad tracking. Identifiers are used for audience list targeting, frequency capping, and sequential creative rotation.
Examples of identifiers are cookies (used on web and mobile web), mobile advertising IDs (used within mobile apps), and publisher provided identifiers (PPID, used for cross-screen serving). Users always have the option of opting out of any identifier used by Google.
The mobile advertising ID for Apple. Mobile advertising IDs allow developers and marketers to track activity for advertising purposes.
An In-Page asset and an Overlay creative that expands onto the user's desktop. This creative type is used in instant messaging (IM) applications.
An ad format where an ad is displayed somewhere on the same page as a video that a user is watching.
Video ads that appear before, during, and after video content streams.
Inflated page views
Each webpage should only register one pageview but when Analytics tracking code is present within a framed page as well as the framing page, Analytics is likely to register two pageviews for that visit. This causes a pageview count that is higher than it should be.
An order form for the placement of an advertising request. For example, publishers who want to run a rich media publisher-paid campaign must sign an insertion order provided by a Google Marketing Platform representative.
Full-screen mobile app ads that display before or after an event (app launch, video pre-roll) or user action (game level load).
A feature that is used to estimate how much ad inventory will be available in the future.
The relationship between different types of inventory. Premium customers can have more than one level of inventory. They can have parent ad units which themselves have child ad units.
One level of an inventory hierarchy (top-level ad unit, lower-level ad unit, etc.).
The structure in which an inventory hierarchy is organized.
Identifies kind of inventory or medium in which an ad serves. Values include (but are not limited to) the following:
Process where the same creative serves to multiple ad units on the same page at the same time. The Google Ad Manager ad server tries to ensure that this does not happen.
In custom targeting, the first part of a key-value pair (key=value). For example, in the key-value pair car=X, car is the key and X is the value. Keys can have multiple values assigned to them.
A set of two linked data items, known as the key and the value. The format of a key-value pair is key=value.
In the context of yield management, this is the percentage by which an ad was optimized. It is calculated by finding the percentage difference between the optimized group and the control group.
An advertiser's commitment to purchase a specific number of ad impressions (CPM), user clicks (CPC), or time (CPD), on certain dates at a specified price. A line item specifies where an advertiser's ads will appear, and may specify when an ad may be shown.
Line item discount
The percentage or dollar amount by which you can reduce a line item's cost. In general, this field simply serves as a reminder that the advertiser received a discount. Discounting doesn't affect a line item's priority based on cost or value CPM. Also, discounts aren't reflected in reporting.
Lower-level ad unit
Any ad unit that is not at the highest level in a multi-level ad unit hierarchy. Can also be called "child" or "descendant" depending on context.
The primary ad in a roadblock, which allows for the synchronization of ads on the same webpage or app.
Increases your mobile app revenue by calling a series of third-party ad networks to fill an ad request, ordered by expected yield. Each ad network has the opportunity to fill an ad request; however, if one ad network does not fill the request, the next ad network in the sequence gains an opportunity.
Targeting type that stands for Metropolitan area.
Multiple Customer Management (MCM)
Lets a “child” publisher delegate management of their Ad Manager inventory to a third-party “parent” publisher through an invitation process.
Depending on the chosen MCM delegation type (Manage Inventory or Manage Account), the parent publisher manages the child’s inventory in their own account or the child’s account.
Note: MCM replaces SPM in early 2022. The migration from SPM to MCM is in progress.
A type of ad that mirrors the visual design of the user experience it lives within, and looks, feels, and behaves like natural content on the publisher property in which it’s displayed.
Native ad format
Defines the variables that make up a native ad. Variables comprise the content that will appear in the ad (such as Headline, Image, and Body Text). You can select Standard (system-defined) formats or create your own Custom (user-defined) formats.
Manage the look and feel of your native ads within Ad Manager, for both web and apps. Ad Manager handles the rendering of your native ads based on native styles you specify within the product.
Explains why a line item that was eligible for an ad request didn’t deliver. This can help troubleshoot unexpected behavior and assure you that line items are behaving as intended.
Line items that are most commonly used to fill your site's unsold inventory if not contractually obligated to deliver a requested number of impressions to other Guaranteed line items.
The on-schedule indicator (OSI) is a metric that provides an indication of the pacing of an ad's delivery. This is done by comparing the average number of ads delivered each day with the optimal daily delivery.
Optimized creative rotation
An option where Ad Manager gives roughly 75% of the impressions to the creative with the highest click-through rate, and the remaining 25% to the other creatives (to validate that the previously chosen "best" creative still has the highest click-through rate).
An agreement between an interactive advertising seller and a buyer that specifies the details of an advertising campaign. Orders contain one or more line items.
Publishers and exchanges optimize yield management with server-to-server real-time bidding that uses a publisher’s existing tagging or SDK implementation. The unified Google Ad Manager technology stack also provides simplified trafficking, reporting and billing. Open Bidding was previously known as Exchange Bidding.
A creative that is displayed outside of a webpage or app (for example, pop-ups and pop-unders).
To book an ad (or multiple ads) for a greater number of impressions or clicks than are forecasted to be available. In most cases, this leads to underdelivery of one or more ads.
The process where Ad Manager records which impressions occurred together when a page is viewed, when you run a forecast on roadblock ads.
A common concept across the web, representing a particular user loading and viewing a webpage one time. In Ad Manager ad serving, all ad requests corresponding to a page view are considered together because the behavior of any one of these ads affects what else might be eligible to serve. For example, an Exclusion Label prevents two ads with the same label from serving in the same Page View.
The upper level in a hierarchical system, such as the ad unit structure. The lower level is known as the child.
Parent inventory unit
The upper level of an inventory hierarchy. Every ad unit you define in your network has a parent inventory unit based on where you create the ad unit in the inventory hierarchy.
A creative that shows a glimpse of your ad in the corner of a webpage. When the user interacts, the rest of the ad peels down to reveal the full message.
Personally Identifiable Information (PII)
Any information that could be used to identify a specific user, such as an email address or a phone number. In the interests of protecting end-user privacy, Google ads product policies mandate that publishers must not pass any data to Google that Google could use or recognize as personally identifiable information.
A collection of one or more ad units that can be targeted as a group. You can add ad units to a placement to simplify the targeting of ads.
For video ads, this is a dynamic grouping of ads next to each other. Pods allow groups of video ads to be shown in sequence. Two types of pods exist:
For video ads, this is the process of grouping ads dynamically.
Malware, misrepresentations, phishing, and other components of ads that prevent a safe and positive experience. Google scans creatives for policy violations, which you can then attempt to remove.
For native video ads, image file to be shown while the video is loading, or until the user clicks to play the video. If this is not included, the first frame of the video is used. This image also displays after video completion.
Pretargeting is how Yield partners decide which bid requests they want to receive from publishers.
Automated, machine-based selections for purchasing display advertising.
A type of expanding ad that pushes down the content of a webpage when the creative expands, moving the site out of the way to display the ad. Sometimes written as "push down".
A server-to-server integration option for network buyers that allows networks to evaluate and bid on each available impression.
Creative you use to track image or Flash ads that aren't hosted and served by Google. Redirect creatives are commonly used for ads from a third-party network or affiliate provider.
Releasing inventory is the opposite of reserving it. When inventory is released, the reservation is "canceled", and the inventory is freed up for forecasting and future ad booking. Inventory cannot be released without first being reserved.
Refers collectively to the line item types most commonly used to fill your site's unsold inventory. Remnant line item types include Network, Bulk, Price Priority and can be used for various non-guaranteed transactions. They can satisfy an ad request when there are no guaranteed campaigns eligible to serve. Also see Non-guaranteed.
A phrase sometimes used to describe ad space (inventory) that you were unable to sell via guaranteed line items and, thus, was sold via either non-guaranteed line items or via Ad Exchange or AdSense line items, which make inventory available to auctions. Guaranteed line items are considered more desirable channels to sell inventory as they generally generate more revenue.
Ad space (inventory) can be thought of a neither remnant nor non-remnant, however, as this designation depends on what was eligible to serve to that inventory for any given ad request. Any inventory may be available to guaranteed line items, non-guaranteed line items, or to Ad Exchange or AdSense line items, depending on how your Ad Manager network is set up.
Designating inventory as remnant (or premium) is subjective and dependent on perceived value. The perceived value of inventory can shift over time. Ad space on a sport page may be perceived more valuable during playoff season rather than off season, for instance.
To generate a creative on a user's browser.
When guaranteed (non-remnant) line items are booked in Ad Manager, Ad Manager "reserves" the inventory for this line item. This inventory reservation means that the impressions are considered to be "blocked off" for other ads running at a lower priority. Ad Manager forecasting accounts for inventory reservations when calculating future impression availability.
Rich media creative
An ad containing animation, sound, video, or interactive features. Rich media creatives can be used either on their own or in combination with technologies such as streaming media and sound.
Several creatives being served from a line item together on the same webpage. Roadblocking blocks off the ad slots on a page and fills them with creatives from one line item.
An ad scheduled to run across an entire network of sites, except explicitly excluded sites, according to available inventory.
The percentage of available traffic that has been reserved for standard or sponsorship line items.
Session ad rules
Unlike standard ad rules, session ad rules are frequency-based and apply across multiple video streams. They control how long a visitor can watch content across streams before an ad shows, and how many ads that visitor sees. Like standard ad rules, session ad rules control the type of ad formats that appear and what the source of the ads should be.
A GPT mode where tags call all ads once in the header, instead of requesting each ad separately inline with the ad slot. This is also sometimes called "Single Request Architecture" or SRA.
A pagination mechanism used with the max-results parameter for situations when totalResults exceeds 1000 and you want to retrieve items indexed at 1001 and beyond.
See Anchor ad.
Key values that specify data like content information and an audience for the video, for example, age: 16-65; geo: US UK FR.
Each targeting key represents a category to which a line item is targeted, where a "category" is represented by a value assigned to the key. Consider a targeting key of "color", where allowable values are "red" and "blue". In this case, "color = red" represents a key/value pair that can be passed in the ad request and used for targeting an ad.
Also known as a targeting selector or widget, this is the area on the Line item details page where you can select various targeting criteria for the line item.
A value passed for a specific targeting key, which can be used in line item targeting. For example, the value in the key-value pair for "color = red" is "red".
One or more screenshots of webpages or apps showing specific ads, for the purpose of proving to the advertiser that they ran in the way that the advertiser wanted.
Top-level ad unit
The highest-level ad unit in a hierarchy that consists of multi-level ad units. Can also be called "parent" or "upper-level" ad unit depending on context.
View historical traffic alongside future impression opportunities to find better ways to segment and package inventory.
Someone who works at a publisher and configures the ads to run in the ad server.
The process of creating orders and ads, controlling ad delivery, and targeting ads and keywords.
An unfilled impression, or blank ad, is an ad request that didn’t return an ad because none were eligible to serve. Avoid this by populating your network with widely targeted (run of network) ads like House ads or Ad Exchange ads.
A fee that is paid for the increased value of Rich Media over standard ad serving.
Determines the price at which the line item competes with other line items.
A video format designed to standardize communication between video players and servers, facilitating traffic across all kinds of publishing platforms. Acronym for Video Ad Serving Template.
Video ad tag
For video ads, a waterfall involves having a hierarchy of ads ready to serve. If the first one doesn't serve, the second one will; if the second doesn't serve, the third one will, etc. This is commonly referred to as a fallback.
For line items, the portion, as a percentage, that you want a sponsorship line item to serve. For creatives, the portion, as a percentage, that you want a particular creative to serve within a creative rotation.
A type of creative rotation. Each creative will rotate based on the frequency that you specify.
Revenue and impression data for both direct sales (standard and sponsorship) and house or remnant inventory.
A system for bidding which requires custom configuration by publishers.
Learn more about the difference between Open Bidding and header bidding.
The minimum price a buyer needs to bid in order to be eligible for the auction.
Name of the group of ad networks or exchanges which allows you to specify what inventory you want to sell with Ad Exchange, Open Bidding, or Mediation.
The term for "ad network" companies in Ad Manager. These companies can be used for Mediation for mobile apps or Open Bidding, depending on the settings.
One of the delegation types available for Multiple Customer Management publishers. This relationship grants a parent publisher edit access to manage inventory directly in a child publisher’s account.
The other delegation type is Manage Inventory.
One of the delegation types available for Multiple Customer Management publishers.
This relationship lets a parent publisher manage ad requests that a child publisher delegates to the parent’s account. The parent manages the delegated inventory from their own account. Child publishers have no visibility into the parent’s account and vice versa.
The other delegation type is Manage Account.
In Multiple Customer Management, a third-party publisher that delegates the management of their inventory to a parent publisher.
Child publishers can grant parent publishers edit access to their account (Manage Account), or delegate inventory to the parent account (Manage Inventory).
In Multiple Customer Management, a third-party publisher that manages a child publisher’s inventory. Depending on the MCM relationship, parent publishers manage inventory in their own account (Manage Inventory) or in the child’s account (Manage Account).
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