Index Coverage Status report
Learn which of your pages have been indexed and any problems encountered when indexing your site.
This report is much easier to understand if you have read how Google Search works first.
This report shows the indexing state of all URLs that Google has visited, or tried to visit, in your property. The summary page shows the results for all URLs in your property grouped by status (error, warning, or valid) and specific reason for that status (such as Submitted URL not found (404)). Click a table row in the summary page to see all URLs with the same status/reason and more details about the issue.
Do I need this report?
If your site has fewer than 500 pages, you probably don't need to use this report. Instead, it's much simpler to search for your site on Google by entering
site:your_site , where "your_site" is your site's homepage URL without the "http://" or "https://" prefix. For example,
site:example.com/petstore. The search results show pages that Google knows about on your site. You can add search terms to find specific pages on your site, for example
site:example.com/petstore iguanas zebras.
The top level report shows the index status of all pages that Google has attempted to crawl on your site, grouped by status and reason.
What to look for
Ideally you should see a gradually increasing count of valid indexed pages as your site grows. If you see drops or spikes, see the troubleshooting section. The status table in the summary page is grouped and sorted by "status + reason"; you should fix your most impactful errors first.
What not to look for
- You should not expect all URLs on your site to be indexed. Your goal is to get the canonical version of every page indexed. Any duplicate or alternate pages will be labeled "Excluded" in this report. Duplicate or alternate pages have substantially the same content as the canonical page. Having a page marked duplicate or alternate is a good thing; it means that we've found the canonical page and indexed it. You can find the canonical for any URL by running the URL Inspection tool. See more reasons why pages might be missing.
- When you add new content, it can take a few days for Google to index it. You can reduce the indexing lag by requesting indexing.
Each page can have one of the following status values:
- Error: The page is not indexed. See the specific error type description to learn more about the error and how to fix it. You should concentrate on these issues first.
- Warning: The page is indexed, but has an issue that you should be aware of.
- Excluded: The page is not indexed, but we think that was your intention. (For example, you might have deliberately excluded it by a noindex directive, or it might be a duplicate of a canonical page that we've already indexed on your site.)
- Valid: The page is indexed.
Each status (error, warning valid, excluded) has a specific reason for that status. See Status type descriptions below for a description of each status type, and how to handle it.
The validation status for this issue. You should prioritize fixing issues that are in validation state "failed" or "not started".
After you fix all instances of a specific issue on your site, you can ask Google to validate your changes. If all known instances are gone, the issue is marked as fixed in the status table and dropped to the bottom of the table. Search Console tracks the validation state of the issue as a whole, as well as the state of each instance of the issue. When all instances of the issue are gone, the issue is considered fixed. (For actual states recorded, see Issue validation state and Instance validation state.)
More about issue lifetime...
An issue's lifetime extends from the first time any instance of that issue was detected on your site until 90 days after the last instance was marked as gone from your site. If ninety days pass without any recurrences, the issue is removed from the report history.
The issue's first detected date is the first time the issue was detected during the issue's lifetime, and does not change. Therefore:
- If all instances of an issue are fixed, but a new instance of the issue occurs 15 days later, the issue is marked as open, and "first detected" date remains the original date.
- If the same issue occurs 91 days after the last instance was fixed, the previous issue was closed, and so this is recorded as a new issue, with the first detected date set to "today".
Basic validation flow
Here is an overview of the validation process after you click Validate Fix for an issue. This process can take several days, and you will receive progress notifications by email.
- When you click Validate Fix, Search Console immediately checks a few pages.
- If the current instance exists in any of these pages, validation ends, and the validation state remains unchanged.
- If the sample pages do not have the current error, validation continues with state Started. If validation finds other unrelated issues, these issues are counted against that other issue type and validation continues.
- Search Console works through the list of known URLs affected by this issue. Only URLs with known instances of this issue are queued for recrawling, not the whole site. Search Console keeps a record of all URLs checked in the validation history, which can be reached from the issue details page.
- When a URL is checked:
- If the issue is not found, the instance validation state changes to Passing. If this is the first instance checked after validation has started, the issue validation state changes to Looking good.
- If the URL is no longer reachable, the instance validation state changes to Other (which is not an error state).
- If the instance is still present, issue state changes to Failed and validation ends. If this is a new page discovered by normal crawling, it is considered another instance of this existing issue.
- When all error and warning URLs have been checked and the issue count is 0, the issue state changes to Passed. Important: Even when the number of affected pages drops to 0 and issue state changes to Passed, the original severity label will still be shown (Error or Warning).
Even if you never click "start validation" Google can detect fixed instances of an issue. If Google detects that all instances of an issue have been fixed during its regular crawl, it will change the issue state to "N/A" on the report.
When is an issue considered "fixed" for a URL or item?
An issue is marked as fixed for a URL or item when either of the following conditions are met:
- When the URL is crawled and the issue is no longer found on the page. For an AMP tag error, this can mean that you either fixed the tag or that the tag has been removed (if the tag is not required). During a validation attempt, it will be considered as "passed."
- If the page is not available to Google for any reason (page removed, marked noindex, requires authentication, and so on), the issue will be considered as fixed for that URL. During a validation attempt, it is counted in the "other" validation state.
When you click Revalidate for a failed validation, validation restarts for all failed instances, plus any new instances of this issue discovered through normal crawling.
You should wait for a validation cycle to complete before requesting another cycle, even if you have fixed some issues during the current cycle.
Instances that have passed validation (marked Passed) or are no longer reachable (marked Other) are not checked again, and are removed from the history when you click Revalidate.
You can see the progress of a validation request by clicking the validation details link in the issue details page.
Entries in the validation history page are grouped by URL for the AMP report and Index Status report. In the Mobile Usability and Rich Result reports, items are grouped by the combination of URL + structured data item (as determined by the item's Name value). The validation state applies to the specific issue that you are examining. You can have one issue labeled "Passed" on a page, but other issues labeled "Failed", "Pending," or "Other".
The following validation states apply to a given issue:
- Not started: There are one or more pages with an instance of this issue that you have never begun a validation attempt for. Next steps:
- Click into the issue to learn the details of the error. Inspect the individual pages to see examples of the error on the live page using the AMP Test. (If the AMP Test does not show the error on the page, it is because you fixed the error on the live page after Google found the error and generated this issue report.)
- Click "Learn more" on the details page to see the details of the rule that was violated.
- Click an example URL row in the table to get details on that specific error.
- Fix your pages and then click Validate fix to have Google recrawl your pages. Google will notify you about the progress of the validation. Validation takes anywhere from a few days up to about two weeks, so please be patient.
- Started: You have begun a validation attempt and no remaining instances of the issue have been found yet. Next step: Google will send notifications as validation proceeds, telling you what to do, if necessary.
- Looking good: You started a validation attempt, and all issue instances that have been checked so far have been fixed. Next step: Nothing to do, but Google will send notifications as validation proceeds, telling you what to do.
- Passed: All known instances of the issue are gone (or the affected URL is no longer available). You must have clicked "Validate fix" to get to this state (if instances disappeared without you requesting validation, state would change to N/A). Next step: Nothing more to do.
- N/A: Google found that the issue was fixed on all URLs, even though you never started a validation attempt. Next step: Nothing more to do.
- Failed: A certain threshold of pages still contain this issue, after you clicked "Validate." Next steps: Fix the issue and revalidate.
After validation has been requested, every instance of the issue is assigned one of the following validation states:
- Pending validation: Queued for validation. The last time Google looked, this issue instance existed.
- Passed: [Not available in Index Coverage report] Google checked for the issue instance and it no longer exists. Can reach this state only if you explicitly clicked Validate for this issue instance.
- Failed: Google checked for the issue instance and it's still there. Can reach this state only if you explicitly clicked Validate for this issue instance.
- Other: [Not available in Index Coverage report] Google couldn't reach the URL hosting the instance, or (for structured data) couldn't find the item on the page any more. Considered equivalent to Passed.
Note that the same URL can have different states for different issues; For example, if a single page has both issue X and issue Y, issue X can be in validation state Passed and issue Y on the same page can be in validation state Pending.
Use the dropdown filter above the chart to filter index results by how Google discovered the URL. The following values are available:
- All known pages [Default] - Show all URLs discovered by Google through any means.
- All submitted pages - Show only pages submitted in a sitemap to this report or by sitemap ping.
- Specific sitemap URL - Show only URLs listed in a specific sitemap that was submitted using this report. This includes any URLs in nested sitemaps.
A URL is considered to submitted by a sitemap even if it was also discovered through some other mechanism (for example, by organic crawling from another page).
Click on a row in the summary page to open a details page for that status + reason combination. You can see details about the chosen issue by clicking Learn more on the details page.
The graph on this page shows the count affected pages over time.
The table shows an example list of pages affected by the issue:
- Open a URL in the table by clicking the jump link on the table row.
- Inspect a URL in the table by clicking the inspect icon on the table row.
- When you've fixed all instances of an error or warning, you can ask Google to validate your fixes.
See a URL marked with an issue that you've already fixed? Perhaps you fixed the issue AFTER the last Google crawl. Therefore, if you see a URL with an issue that you have fixed, be sure to check the crawl date for that URL. Check and confirm your fix, then request re-indexing
You can share issue details by clicking the Share button on the page. This link grants access only to the current page, plus any validation history pages for this issue, to anyone with the link. It does not grant access to other pages for your resource, or enable the shared user to perform any actions on your property or account. You can revoke the link at any time by disabling sharing for this page.
Here are some of the most common indexing issues that you might see in this report:
Drop in total indexed pages without corresponding errors
More Excluded than Valid pages
If you see more Excluded than Valid pages, look at the exclusion reasons. Common exclusion reasons include:
- You have a robots.txt rule that blocks Google from crawling large sections of your site. If you are blocking the wrong pages, unblock them.
- Your site has a large number of duplicate pages, probably because it uses parameters to filter or sort a common collection (for example:
sort=price). These page probably should be excluded, if they are just showing the same content that is sorted, filtered, or reached in different ways. If you are an advanced user, and you think that Google is misunderstanding parameters on your site, you can use the URL Parameters tool to customize the handling of your site's parameters.
Error spikes might be caused by a change in your template that introduces a new error, or you might have submitted a sitemap that includes URLs that are blocked for crawling (for example, by robots.txt or noindex, or a login requirement). Click into an issue, and inspect a page to see what the error is.
If you see an error spike:
- See if you can find any correspondence between the total number of indexing errors or total indexed count and the sparkline next to a specific error row on the summary page as a clue to which issue might be affecting your total error or total indexed page count.
- Click any error rows that seem to be contributing to your error spike to get to the details page with more information. Read the description about the specific error type to learn how to handle it best.
- Fix all instances for the error, and request validation by clicking Validate Fix in the details page for that reason. Read more about validation.
- You'll get notifications as your validation proceeds, but you can check back after a few days to see whether your error count has gone down.
- Periodically remove the filter for excluded URLs, sort them by number of affected pages, and scan them for any unwanted issues.
Testing server connectivity
Fixing server connectivity errors
- Reduce excessive page loading for dynamic page requests.
A site that delivers the same content for multiple URLs is considered to deliver content dynamically (for example,
www.example.com/shoes.php?color=red&size=7serves the same content as
www.example.com/shoes.php?size=7&color=red). Dynamic pages can take too long to respond, resulting in timeout issues. Or the server might return an overloaded status to ask Googlebot to crawl the site more slowly. In general, we recommend keeping parameter lists short and using them sparingly. If you're confident about how parameters work for your site, you can tell Google how we should handle these parameters.
- Make sure your site's hosting server is not down, overloaded, or misconfigured.
If connection, timeout or response problems persists, check with your web hoster and consider increasing your site's ability to handle traffic.
- Check that you are not inadvertently blocking Google.
You might be blocking Google due to a system level issue, such as a DNS configuration issue, a misconfigured firewall or DoS protection system, or a content management system configuration. Protection systems are an important part of good hosting and are often configured to automatically block unusually high levels of server requests. However, because Googlebot often makes more requests than a human user, it can trigger these protection systems, causing them to block Googlebot and prevent it from crawling your website. To fix such issues, identify which part of your website's infrastructure is blocking Googlebot and remove the block. The firewall may not be under your control, so you may need to discuss this with your hosting provider.
- Control search engine site crawling and indexing wisely.
Some webmasters intentionally prevent Googlebot from reaching their websites, perhaps using a firewall as described above. In these cases, usually the intent is not to entirely block Googlebot, but to control how the site is crawled and indexed. If this applies to you, check the following:
- To control Googlebot's crawling of your content, use a robots.txt file and configure URL parameters.
- If you're worried about rogue bots using the Googlebot user-agent, you can verify whether a crawler is actually Googlebot.
- If you would like to change how frequently Googlebot crawls your site, you can request a change in Googlebot's crawl rate. Hosting providers can verify ownership of their IP addresses to enable this.
In general, we recommend spending time to fix only 404 error pages, not 404 excluded pages. 404 error URLs are URLs that you explicitly asked Google to index, but were not found. 404 excluded URLs are URLs that Google discovered through some other mechanism.
Here's how you should handle 404 errors:
- Decide if it's worth fixing. Many (most?) 404 errors are not worth fixing because 404s don't harm your site's indexing or ranking.
- If it is a submitted URL (an error), it is worth fixing.
- If it is a deleted page that has no replacement or equivalent, returning a 404 is the right thing to do. The report should stop showing the 404 after about a month.
- If it is a bad URL generated by a script, or that never have existed on your site, you probably don't need to worry about it. It might bother you to see it on your report, but you don't need to fix it, unless the URL is a commonly misspelled link (see below). 404 errors should be dropped from the report after about a month.
- If the URL was submitted for indexing, (the status is Error),
- Inspect the URL to see where it was submitted from by clicking the submit icon next to the URL and look at the Discovery information. Update the sitemap as necessary.
- If the content has moved, add a redirect.
- If you have permanently deleted content without intending to replace it with newer, related content, let the old URL return a 404 or 410. Currently Google treats 410s (Gone) the same as 404s (Not found). Returning a code other than 404 or 410 for a non-existent page (or redirecting users to another page, such as the homepage, instead of returning a 404) can be problematic. Such pages are called soft 404s, and can be confusing to both users and search engines.
- If the URL is unknown: You might occasionally see 404 errors for URLs that never existed on your site. These errors can occur when someone browses to a non-existent URL on your site - perhaps someone mistyped a URL in the browser, or someone mistyped a link URL. If it's a very common error, you might create a redirect for it.
<a href="helloworld.pdf" onClick="_gaq.push(['_trackPageview','/download-helloworld']);"> Hello World PDF</a>
When Googlebot sees this code, it might try to crawl the URL
http://www.example.com/download-helloworld, even though it's not a real page. In this case, the link may appear as a 404 (Not Found) error in the Crawl Errors report. Google is working to prevent this type of crawl error. This error has no effect on the crawling or ranking of your site.
- Don't create fake content, redirect to your homepage, or use robots.txt to block 404s—all of these things make it harder for us to recognize your site’s structure and process it properly. We call these soft 404 errors.(Once Google has successfully crawled a URL, it can try to crawl that URL forever. Issuing a 300-level redirect will delay the recrawl attempt, possibly for a very long time.) Submitting a URL removal request using the URL removal tool will not remove the error from this report.
If your page is not in the report at all, one of the following is probably true:
- Google doesn't know about the page. Some notes about page discoverability:
- If this is a new site or page, remember that it can take some time for Google to find and crawl new sites or pages.
- In order for Google to learn about a page, you must either submit a sitemap or page crawl request, or else Google must find a link to your page somewhere.
- After a page URL is known, it can take some time (up to a few weeks) before Google crawls some or all of your site.
- Indexing is never instant, even when you submit a crawl request directly.
- Google can't reach your page (it requires a login, or is otherwise not available to all users on the internet)
- The page has a noindex tag, which prevents Google from indexing it, or
- The page was dropped from the index for some reason.
Use the URL Inspection tool to test the problem on your page. If the page is not in the Index Coverage report but it is listed as indexed in the URL Inspection report, it was probably indexed recently, and will appear in the Index Coverage report soon. If the page is listed as not indexed in the URL Inspection tool (which is what you'd expect), test the live page. The live page test results should indicate what the issue is: use the information from the test and the test documentation to learn how to fix the issue.
Why is my page in the index? I don't want it indexed.
Google can index any URL that it finds unless you include a noindex directive on the page (or it has been temporarily blocked), and Google can find a page in many different ways, including someone linking to your page from another site.
- If you want your page to be blocked from Google Search results, you can either require some kind of login for the page, or you can use a noindex directive on the page.
- If you want your page to be removed from Google Search results after it has already been found, you'll need to follow these steps.
Why hasn't my site been reindexed lately?
Google reindexes pages based on a number of criteria, including how often it thinks the page changes. If your site doesn't change often, it might be on a slower refresh rate, which is fine, if your pages haven't changed. If you think your site is in need of a refresh, ask Google to recrawl it.
Can you please recrawl my page/site?
Why are so many of my pages excluded?
Look at the exclusion reasons detailed by the Index Coverage report. Most exclusions are due to one of the following reasons:
- You have a robots.txt rule that is blocking us from crawling large sections of your site. Use the URL Inspection tool to confirm the problem.
- Your site has a large number of duplicate pages, typically because it uses parameters to filter or sort a common collection (for example:
sort=price). These pages will be labeled as "duplicate" or "alternate" in the Index Coverage report.
- The URL redirects to another URL. Redirect URLs are not indexed; the redirect target is.
Google can't access my sitemap
Be sure that your sitemap is not blocked by robots.txt, is valid, and that you're using the proper URL in your robots.txt entry or Sitemaps report submission. Test your sitemap URL using a publicly available sitemap testing tool.
Why does Google keep crawling a page that was removed?
Google continues to crawl all known URLs even after they return 4XX errors for a while, in case it's a temporary error. The only case when a URL won't be crawled is when it returns a noindex directive.
To avoid showing you an eternally growing list of 404 errors, the Index Coverage report shows only URLs that have shown 404 errors in the past month.
I can see my page, why can't Google?
Use the URL Inspection tool to see whether Google can see the live page. If it can't, it should explain why. If it can, the problem is likely that the access error has been fixed since the last crawl. Run a live crawl using the URL Inspection tool and request indexing.
The URL Inspection tool shows no problems, but the Index Coverage report shows an error; why?
You might have fixed the error after the URL was last crawled by Google. Look at the crawl date for your URL (which should be visible in either the URL details page in the Index Coverage report or in the indexed version view in the URL Inspection tool). Determine if you made any fixes since the page was crawled.
How do I find the index state of a specific URL?
To learn the index status of a specific URL, use the URL Inspection tool. You can't search or filter by URL in the Index Coverage report.
Here are the possible reasons for each issue status:
"Submitted" vs "Not submitted"
Any time that you see an index reason that uses the word "Submitted", it means that you have explicitly asked Google to index the URL by including it in a sitemap. Any time it is labeled "Not submitted" it means that Google found the URL by itself (for example, from a link on another page) and that it is not in any indexed sitemaps.
Pages with errors have not been indexed.
Redirect error: The URL was a redirect error. Could be one of the following types: it was a redirect chain that was too long; it was a redirect loop; the redirect URL eventually exceeded the max URL length; there was a bad or empty URL in the redirect chain.
Submitted URL marked ‘noindex’: You submitted this page for indexing, but the page has a 'noindex' directive either in a meta tag or HTTP header. If you want this page to be indexed, you must remove the tag or HTTP header.
Submitted URL seems to be a Soft 404: You submitted this page for indexing, but the server returned what seems to be a soft 404.
Submitted URL returns unauthorized request (401): You submitted this page for indexing, but Google got a 401 (not authorized) response. Either remove authorization requirements for this page, or else allow Googlebot to access your pages by verifying its identity.
Submitted URL not found (404): You submitted a non-existent URL for indexing. See Fixing 404 errors.
Submitted URL has crawl issue: You submitted this page for indexing, and Google encountered an unspecified crawling error that doesn't fall into any of the other reasons. Try debugging your page using the URL Inspection tool.
Pages with a warning status might require your attention, and may or may not have been indexed, according to the specific result.
Indexed, though blocked by robots.txt: The page was indexed, despite being blocked by robots.txt (Google always respects robots.txt, but this doesn't help if someone else links to it). This is marked as a warning because we're not sure if you intended to block the page from search results. If you do want to block this page, robots.txt is not the correct mechanism to avoid being indexed. To avoid being indexed you should either use 'noindex' or prohibit anonymous access to the page using auth. You can use the robots.txt tester to determine which rule is blocking this page. Because of the robots.txt, any snippet shown for the page will probably be sub-optimal. If you do not want to block this page, update your robots.txt file to unblock your page.
Pages with a valid status have been indexed.
Indexed, not submitted in sitemap: The URL was discovered by Google and indexed. We recommend submitting all important URLs using a sitemap.
These pages are typically not indexed, and we think that is appropriate. These pages are either duplicates of indexed pages, or blocked from indexing by some mechanism on your site, or otherwise not indexed for a reason that we think is not an error.
Excluded by ‘noindex’ tag: When Google tried to index the page it encountered a 'noindex' directive and therefore did not index it. If you do not want this page indexed, congratulations! If you do want this page to be indexed, you should remove that 'noindex' directive.
Blocked by page removal tool: The page is currently blocked by a URL removal request. If you are a verified site owner, you can use the URL removals tool to see who submitted a URL removal request. Removal requests are only good for about 90 days after the removal date. After that period, Googlebot may go back and index the page even if you do not submit another index request. If you don't want the page indexed, use 'noindex', require authorization for the page, or remove the page.
Blocked by robots.txt: This page was blocked to Googlebot with a robots.txt file. You can verify this using the robots.txt tester. Note that this does not mean that the page won't be indexed through some other means. If Google can find other information about this page without loading it, the page could still be indexed (though this is less common). To ensure that a page is not indexed by Google, remove the robots.txt block and use a 'noindex' directive.
Blocked due to unauthorized request (401): The page was blocked to Googlebot by a request for authorization (401 response). If you do want Googlebot to be able to crawl this page, either remove authorization requirements, or allow Googlebot to access your page.
Crawl anomaly: An unspecified anomaly occurred when fetching this URL. This could mean a 4xx- or 5xx-level response code; try fetching the page using the URL Inspection tool to see if it encounters any fetch issues. The page was not indexed.
Crawled - currently not indexed: The page was crawled by Google, but not indexed. It may or may not be indexed in the future; no need to resubmit this URL for crawling.
Discovered - currently not indexed: The page was found by Google, but not crawled yet. Typically, Google tried to crawl the URL but the site was overloaded; therefore Google had to reschedule the crawl. This is why the last crawl date is empty on the report.
Alternate page with proper canonical tag: This page is a duplicate of a page that Google recognizes as canonical. This page correctly points to the canonical page, so there is nothing for you to do.
Duplicate without user-selected canonical: This page has duplicates, none of which is marked canonical. We think this page is not the canonical one. You should explicitly mark the canonical for this page. Inspecting this URL should show the Google-selected canonical URL.
Duplicate, Google chose different canonical than user: This page is marked as canonical for a set of pages, but Google thinks another URL makes a better canonical. Google has indexed the page that we consider canonical rather than this one. We recommend that you explicitly mark this page as a duplicate of the canonical URL. This page was discovered without an explicit crawl request. Inspecting this URL should show the Google-selected canonical URL.
Not found (404): This page returned a 404 error when requested. Google discovered this URL without any explicit request or sitemap. Google might have discovered the URL as a link from another site, or possibly the page existed before and was deleted. Googlebot will probably continue to try this URL for some period of time; there is no way to tell Googlebot to permanently forget a URL, although it will crawl it less and less often. 404 responses are not a problem, if intentional. If your page has moved, use a 301 redirect to the new location. Read Fixing 404 errors
Page removed because of legal complaint: The page was removed from the index because of a legal complaint.
Soft 404: The page request returns what we think is a soft 404 response. This means that it returns a user-friendly "not found" message without a corresponding 404 response code. We recommend returning a 404 response code for truly "not found" pages, or adding more information to the page to let us know that it is not a soft 404. Learn more
Duplicate, submitted URL not selected as canonical: The URL is one of a set of duplicate URLs without an explicitly marked canonical page. You explicitly asked this URL to be indexed, but because it is a duplicate, and Google thinks that another URL is a better candidate for canonical, Google did not index this URL. Instead, we indexed the canonical that we selected. (Google only indexes the canonical in a set of duplicates.) The difference between this status and "Google chose different canonical than user" is that here you have explicitly requested indexing. Inspecting this URL should show the Google-selected canonical URL.
The following are known issues in Search Console. No need to report them to us, but we'd love your feedback on any other features or issues you spot. Use the Feedback mechanism in the navigation bar.
- Indexing data isn't updated daily, and so the data may be a few days delayed, and some data-points are interpolated.
- Charts should cover the last 90 days, but currently might show less.
- The sitemaps dropdown filter includes only sitemaps submitted using Search Console or robots.txt directives.
- The status list is being refined, and might change, for example, items labeled Error mixes different types of responses (4xx/5xx).