About tROAS for ad revenue

Target return on ad spend for ad revenue, or tROAS for ad revenue, enables ROAS optimization for advertisers who are interested in acquiring users more likely to engage with in-app ads. This is done by using the ad_impression event in Google Analytics with our existing tROAS bidding model and campaign type.

Before you begin

In order to run tROAS for Ad Revenue campaigns, advertisers must meet the following criteria:

  • Firebase Bidding: App must be bidding on Firebase events
  • Android only: App must be Android
  • Ad_impression event import: App must’ve imported the ad_impression event from their Google Analytics property to Google Ads (check instructions below)
  • Ad-funded: App must derive a significant majority or entirety of in-app revenue from ads

How it works

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To use tROAS for ad revenue, developers will have to send all AdMob or third-party ad revenue data to Google Analytics for bidding. Third-party ad revenue in Google Analytics enables revenue import from any monetization platform into Google Analytics for tROAS bidding.

Here’s how to set up your respective data properties:

  1. Add your publisher data like your ad revenue data, into your Google Analytics property.
  2. Link your Google Analytics property to Google Ads.
  3. Send your Google Analytics ad_impression event to Google Ads.
    1. Mark your ad_impression event as a conversion in Google Analytics. To mark it as a conversion, first navigate to the events panel in Google Analytics.
    2. Mark the ad_impression event as a conversion event in the far right column with the sliding selector.
Note: Moving forward, the ad_impression event is reserved for exclusive use in tROAS for Ad Revenue campaigns. It’s not selectable as an event in other campaign types by design.

When these steps are completed, you can set up your tROAS for ad revenue App campaign. Setup is identical to existing tROAS campaign setup aside from the selection of the ‘ad_impression’ event to optimize towards ad revenue.

Additionally, tROAS for Hybrid Monetization allows for the utilization of the existing tROAS bidding model to optimize towards users who are likely to drive value for your app, whether that revenue is generated through in-app ads or in-app purchases. To take advantage of this feature, simply add your 'ad_impression' event to your campaign along with the in-app purchase events you'd like to optimize for.


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1. Why are my ad_impression conversions not appearing in Google Ads?

  1. Confirm that the Google Ads and Google Analytics accounts are linked.
    • Check that the Google Ads and Google Analytics accounts are properly linked.
      1. Navigate to the Google Analytics Account.
      2. Click Admin and navigate to the property you want to link.
      3. In the Property column, click Google Ads Linking.
  2. Check the conversion event status and activity in Google Analytics.
    • Verify that the ad_impression event has been marked as a conversion in Google Analytics.
    • Ensure that conversions have been reported for this event in the “Conversions” panel of Google Analytics.
    • Ensure the User-ID value being generated is unique for every user. To set up User-ID, you must be able to generate your own unique IDs, assign IDs to new users and consistently reassign the same IDs to returning users, and include these IDs in the data you send to Analytics.
  3. Check import status and availability of the ad_impression event in Google Ads.
    • Confirm that the event has been imported to Google Ads and is no longer in the import queue.
    • If the event doesn’t show in the conversions tab and import queue, verify that the event hasn’t been deleted in Google Ads.
  4. Verify that auto-tagging has been enabled.
    • Check the Google Ads account settings to verify that auto-tagging has been enabled. This is a prerequisite for importing Analytics goals into Google Ads conversion tracking.

2. How should the tROAS bid be set?

It’s encouraged to specify a ROAS target that’s in line with previous campaign-level ROAS. If a Target ROAS campaign hasn’t previously been run, a ROAS from a comparable tCPA campaign should be used as a substitute, targeting the same geographies and languages.

3. How do tROAS for ad revenue campaigns work?

tROAS for ad revenue campaigns aim to achieve a set target campaign ROAS by optimizing towards users who are likely to deliver revenue to the advertiser via interacting with ads served within their app. tROAS for ad revenue enables advertisers to directly optimize to revenue earned from ads shown in their app, instead of driving high install volume and performing manual adjustments to improve campaign performance after evaluating revenue data internally or in their 3P dashboard.

4. Can I use the Google Play codeless download conversion instead of a Firebase first open?

Yes, this is also supported.

5. Why are no ad_impression events showing up under the In_app actions or All_conversions column?

For the ad_impression conversion action, any columns that have Conversions data (In_app actions, Conversions, All Conversions) will show a 0, so this is expected. In campaign and ad group reporting, you can segment by conversion action to view stats attributed to the ad_impression conversion event and add the “Conversion value” column. In the “Conversion value” column, we’ll show the sum of the values of the ad revenue events.

6. What does “using AdMob as a mediation platform” mean?

If an app is using AdMob as a mediation platform, it’s monetizing or earning revenue from ads using AdMob and not sending ad requests through intermediary solutions, including in-house systems.

7. Is Google Ad Manager supported for Ad Revenue Optimization?

Google Ad Manager is supported for ARO using Impression-level Ad Revenue (iLTV) pingback method. In fact, any platform using iLTV pingback can be used as a data source.

8. Why can’t I select the ad_impression event for optimization on campaign level?

The ad_impression event is only available for the tROAS bidding type, so it won’t be selectable in tCPI or tCPA campaigns.

9. What is the recommended Conversion Window customers should use for ARO campaigns?

The recommended conversion window is between 7 and 30 days to allow for effective model learning and optimization. It’s also recommended that customer interference is kept to a minimum during the initial enablement window period.

10. Which metric in GA4 is comparable to “All conv. value” for ad_impression event in Google Ads?

You should look at “Total Ad Revenue” or “Ad Revenue” in GA4 when investigating conversion value discrepancies between GA4 and Google Ads. Keep in mind that GA4 will by default include revenue driven by all acquisition and engagement sources, so you need to make sure that you’re looking at “google / cpc” source or medium in GA4 before making any comparisons.

11. Does ARO support log ad_impression events through server to server after GA? For example Firebase measurement protocol.

We’re only supporting ad_impression attribution for Firebase presently.

12. What reporting is available for ARO campaigns?

Reporting for tROAS of Ad Revenue campaigns in Google Ads is standard with the exception of conversion counts for the ad_impression event. Due to the nature of the product and the volume of conversions counted for the ad_impression event, the values shown in Conversion related columns will be 0 by default.

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