About attribution models

On the path to conversion, customers may do multiple searches and interact with multiple ads from the same advertiser. Attribution models let you choose how much credit each ad interaction gets for your conversions.

Attribution models can give you a better understanding of how your ads perform and can help you optimise across conversion journeys.

This article describes the various attribution models and how to use them in Google Ads. You'll learn how to set an attribution model for conversion tracking and bidding, and how to compare models with the 'Model comparison' attribution report.

Note: Attribution modeling is only available for clicks on Search Network and Shopping ads on google.com, and doesn't currently cover ad interactions outside of these networks.

Benefits

Most advertisers measure the success of their online advertising on a "last click" basis. This means that they give all the credit for a conversion to the last-clicked ad and corresponding keyword. However, this ignores the other ad interactions that customers may have had along the way.

Attribution models give you more control over how much credit each ad interaction gets for your conversions. This allows you to:

  • Reach customers earlier in the purchase cycle: Find opportunities to influence customers earlier on their path to conversion.
  • Match your business: Use a model that works best for how people search for what you offer.
  • Improve your bidding: Optimise your bids based on a better understanding of how your ads perform.

About the different attribution models

Google Ads offers several attribution models:

Last click Last click: Gives all credit for the conversion to the last-clicked ad and corresponding keyword.

First click First click: Gives all credit for the conversion to the first-clicked ad and corresponding keyword.

Linear Linear: Distributes the credit for the conversion equally across all ad interactions on the path.

Time decay Time decay: Gives more credit to ad interactions that happened closer in time to the conversion. Credit is distributed using a 7-day half-life. In other words, an ad interaction eight days before a conversion gets half as much credit as an ad interaction one day before a conversion.

Position-based Position-based: Gives 40% of credit to both the first and last ad interactions and corresponding keywords, with the remaining 20% spread out across the other ad interactions on the path.

Data-driven Data-driven: Distributes credit for the conversion based on your past data for this conversion action. It's different from the other models, in that it uses your account's data to calculate the actual contribution of each interaction across the conversion path. Note: This is only available to accounts with enough dataLearn more about data-driven attribution

Example

You own the Hotel Paulina in Florence, Italy. A customer finds your site by clicking on your ads after performing each of these searches: 'hotel tuscany', 'hotel florence', '3-star hotel florence' and then '3-star hotel paulina florence'. She makes a reservation after clicking your ad that appeared with '3 star hotel paulina florence'.

  • In the "Last click" attribution model, the last keyword, "3 star hotel paulina florence", would receive 100% of the credit for the conversion.
  • In the "First click" attribution model, the first keyword, "hotel tuscany", would receive 100% of the credit for the conversion.
  • In the "Linear" attribution model, each keyword would share equal credit (25% each) for the conversion.
  • In the 'Time decay' attribution model, the keyword '3 star hotel paulina florence' would receive the most credit because it was searched closest to the conversion. The 'hotel tuscany' keyword would receive the least credit since it was searched first.
  • In the 'Position-based' attribution model, 'hotel tuscany' and '3 star hotel paulina florence' would each receive 40% credit, while 'hotel florence' and '3 star hotel florence' would each receive 10% credit.
  • In the 'Data-driven' attribution model, each keyword would receive part of the credit, depending on how much it contributed to driving the conversion.

To learn how to compare these attribution models and see how they'd affect your data, see the section on the ‘Model comparison’ report below.

About attribution models for conversions and bidding

The 'Attribution model' setting in conversion tracking lets you decide how to attribute conversions for each conversion action. You can use this setting for website and Google Analytics conversion actions. Learn how to set an attribution model for your conversions

This setting affects how conversions are counted in your 'Conversions' and 'All conversions' columns. (Bear in mind that the 'Conversions' column only includes those conversion actions that you've chosen to include with the 'Include in 'Conversions'' setting.) For example, if you choose 'First click' as your attribution model, conversions will be credited to the first ad that customers clicked before completing a conversion. In your reports, the conversions would count in the campaigns, ad groups, ads and keywords associated with the first-clicked ad.

The attribution model that you choose only affects the conversion action to which it's applied, and only affects your Search Network and Shopping data.

The setting also affects any bid strategies that use the data in the 'Conversions' column. This means that if you use an automated bid strategy that optimizes for conversions, such as Target cost per action (Target CPA), Enhanced cost per click (ECPC) or Target return on ad spend (Target ROAS), the attribution model that you select will affect how your bids are optimised.

If you use manual bidding strategies, you can change your attribution model to help you set your bids.

If you're not sure what model to choose, see the section below on the ‘Model comparison’ report, which lets you compare different attribution models. When you're trying a new non-last-click attribution model, we recommend that you test the model first and see how it affects your return on investment.

Note: Changing your attribution model from 'Last click' to 'Data-driven' helps determine which of your ad interactions are most impactful. Data-driven attribution assigns a value to each ad interaction that has contributed to the conversion process and helps drive additional conversions at the same CPA. Learn more about how to change bids and targets after switching models from 'Last click' to 'Data-driven'

About the 'Model comparison' report

The 'Model comparison' report lets you compare two different attribution models side by side. To find keywords, ad groups, campaigns or devices that are undervalued on a last-click basis, you can start with the following comparisons:

  • Compare the 'Last click' model to the 'First click' model to identify undervalued keywords that are starting customers down the conversion path. This is particularly valuable if you're looking to drive more new customers to your website.
  • Compare the 'Last click' model to the 'Linear' model to identify undervalued keywords that are assisting customers all along the conversion path. This is particularly valuable if you want to stay in touch with customers throughout their purchase process.

Tip: Analyse your CPA or ROAS for different attribution models

You can use the 'Cost / conv.' and 'Conv. value / cost' columns in the 'Model comparison' report to compare your CPA and ROAS for different attribution models. This allows you to identify campaigns or keywords that are undervalued using the 'Last click' attribution model. You can then change your bids based on the actual value of your campaigns and keywords across the full conversion path.

How to find and set an attribution model for your conversions

You can set the attribution model when you're setting up your conversion action, or follow the instructions below to compare attribution models and change the attribution model for an existing conversion action:

Compare attribution models

  1. Sign in to your Google Ads account.
  2. In the upper right corner of your account, click the tools icon , then under 'Measurement', select Search attribution.
  3. In the page menu on the left, click Attribution Modelling.
  4. Click Campaign to select one of the following: Campaign, Ad group or Keyword.
  5. Click Last click to compare: Last click, First click, Linear, Time decay or Position-based.
  6. Use the drop-down menus to select the attribution models that you want to see and compare. You can search for specific keywords, ad groups or campaigns from the search box above the table.

Change the attribution model for an existing conversion action

  1. Sign in to your Google Ads account.
  2. In the upper right corner of your account, click the tools icon , then under 'Measurement', select Conversions.
  3. In the table, select the conversion that you want to edit by clicking on the conversion name.
  4. Click Edit settings.
  5. Click on Attribution Model, and select an attribution model from the drop-down menu.
  6. Click Save, then click Finished.
 

Cross-account conversion tracking

If you use cross-account conversion tracking to track conversions at the manager account level, you must select your attribution model in the manager account.

Attribution models in your reporting columns

When you change the 'Attribution model' setting for a conversion action, it only changes the way that your conversions are counted in your 'Conversions' and 'All conversions' columns going forwards. If you want to see how your historic conversions data would look with the attribution model that you've just selected, you can add the 'current model' columns (located in the 'Attribution' section of the 'Columns' menu):

  • Conversions (current model)
  • Cost/conv. (current model)
  • Conv. rate (current model)
  • Conv. value (current model)
  • Conv. value / cost (current model)
  • Conv. value / click (current model)
  • Value / conv. (current model)

These columns can be helpful if you've just changed your attribution model and you want to get a sense of how it will affect your conversion data. You can compare these columns to your regular conversion tracking columns to see how your data would've differed if you'd been using the attribution model that you've now selected.

Like the regular 'Conversions' columns, these columns won't include any conversion actions that you've chosen not to include in 'Conversions'. However, cross-device conversions are included by default.

Bear in mind that these columns include data that isn’t affected by your attribution model selection, such as data from the Display Network.

Was this helpful?
How can we improve it?

Need more help?

Sign in for additional support options to quickly solve your issue