Conversions

It’s important to know which marketing efforts are most effective at acquiring new users and keeping them engaged. Conversions shows how many conversion events were driven by each source and ad network.

In this article:

Conversion Events tab

In Firebase, your most important events are called conversions. The table lists the events defined as conversions, three of which are predefined by Firebase:

To enable or disable an event as a conversion, flip the switch in the Mark as conversion column in the row for that event. You can enable up to 15 events per project as conversions, in additon to the three that Firebase defines by default.

Click an event in the table to see how many conversions are attributed to each source. When you're evaluating an event, choose an attribution model:

  • Cross-channel last click: Firebase looks at clicks from all sources and attributes the conversion to the last click.
  • Cross-channel last engagement: Firebase attributes the conversion to the last click, or to an ad impression if there is no recent click.
  • Google Ads preferred last click: Firebase attributes the conversion to Google Ads whether or not there is a click from another source.
  • Google Ads preferred last engagement: Firebase attributes the conversion to Ads whether or not there is a click or ad impression from another source.

In addition to choosing an attribution model, you can also choose to see the origin of the events by Source, Medium, and Campaign.

To see Google Ads-attributed Conversion Events in your Google Ads attribution reports, link your Firebase project to Google Ads, and then import the Firebase Conversion Events to Google Ads (Tools > Conversions > Firebase).

To help you better understand your conversions, Google Analytics for Firebase features view-through attribution: If there is no click event associated with an app install, Google Analytics for Firebase examines whether an app-install ad was viewed within a given time range, and attributes the conversion to the app-install ad viewed most recently before the installation.

The attribution window for first_open is 30 days. The attribution window for any subsequent in-app conversions is 180 days. You cannot adjust these attribution windows.

iOS installation metrics and in-app event-attribution data for Google Ads iOS Search App Install campaigns have the source direct in Firebase Analytics Conversions, and do not appear in the Google Ads console.

Add a network

To add a network:

  1. In Analytics, navigate to your app.
  2. Click Conversion, then click Network Settings.
  3. Click NEW NETWORK.
  4. Select a network from the menu.
  5. Source is automatically the Network name. Some networks also offer metadata about Campaign medium and Campaign name, so no additional input is needed. For other networks, we’ve provided the Campaign medium and Campaign name fields to capture custom information. Use the generated URL as your referral link (copy and paste the URL).
    • CLICK: If you’re running a campaign to drive users to download the app, use the URL you generate here.
    • DEEP LINK: If you’re running a campaign to re-engage existing app users, use the DEEP LINK tab. In this section, enter the URL scheme and path information. The same parameters will be appended.
  6. To send conversion information back to the network, turn on the Configure Postback switch. Otherwise, click Save.

Postbacks

A Postback sends your conversion data back to an ad network. Postbacks are optional. You may send first_open data in addition to other in-app conversion events. If you decide to set up a Postback, you also choose whether to send the network all conversions, or just the conversions that Firebase attributes to that particular network.

Postbacks help networks optimize the traffic they send you. For example, if a network knows that an app has been downloaded to a device, then it also knows not to serve that device any additional ads for that app.

If you send the network all conversion data, then that network is able to optimize its own traffic based on an awareness of conversions from all networks. When you send all conversion data to a network, the other networks involved in delivering conversions are anonymized.

To configure a Postback:

  1. In Analytics, navigate to your app.
  2. Click Conversions, then click Network Settings.
  3. In the row for the network, click Configure postback.
  4. Select the conversions you want to send, and select Only conversions attributed to this network or All conversions.
  5. Enter the network parameters (e.g., Tracking ID, Advertiser Password). Parameters vary by network.
  6. Click Save.

Custom campaigns for Google Play apps

When you use a custom campaign for an app you're distributing via Google Play, use the Google Play URL Builder to generate your custom URLs.

How different conversions are attributed

Dynamic links

When you add Dynamic Links to your app, the following events are recorded when users click those links:

  • dynamic_link_first_open
  • dynamic_link_app_open
  • dynamic_link_app_update

You can view Analytics data for these events in the Events report.

If you enable these events as conversions, you can see attribution data in the Attribution report.

Learn more about Dynamic Links

Universal links

You can configure Universal Links to include utm parameters (utm_source, utm_medium, utm_campaign), and see the related data in your Attribution report.

Universal Link example:

http://my.app.link?utm_campaign=myappcampaign&utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc

When a user clicks the link, Firebase logs a firebase_campaign event with those parameters, and you see the following data for campaign-related events:

  • Campaign: myappcampaign
  • Source: google
  • Medium: cpc

Android-app links

You can configure Android App Links to include utm parameters (utm_source, utm_medium, utm_campaign), and see the related data in your Attribution report.

Android App Link example:

http://example.com/gizmos?utm_campaign=myappcampaign&utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc

When a user clicks the link, Firebase logs a firebase_campaign event with those parameters, and you see the following data for campaign-related events:

  • Campaign: myappcampaign
  • Source: google
  • Medium: cpc

Play Store install referrals

Install referrals from Google Play Store appear as follows:

  • Source = google-play: indicates one of two things:
    • The user was deep linked to Play Store listing via a link that specified a referrer (e.g., play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.foo.bar&referrer=R)
    • The user searched Play Store and discovered the app organically
  • Source = (direct): indicates:
    • The user was deep linked to Play Store via a link that didn't specify a referrer

Attribution windows

The attribution window for first_open conversion events is 30 days.

Once a first_open conversion event is attributed to a campaign, then all other conversion events for that same combination of user and app are attributed to that same campaign until the attribution window expires in 1 year. The attribution window is renewed for 1 year with each subsequent conversion that occurs before expiration.

The attribution window for a re-engagement campaign is 6 months.

Re-engagement campaigns

A conversion from a re-engagement campaign gets attributed twice:

  • To the campaign that got credit for the first_open event. LTV accrues with that campaign. (Events other than first_open add to LTV if they include revenue details, e.g., the in_app_purchase event or any of the Retail/Ecommerce events.)
  • To the re-engagement campaign. No LTV accrues with that campaign.

Campaign and re-engagement-campaign conversions are attributed as follows:

  • Click-through: the conversion is attributed to the last campaign ad that was clicked, irrespective of how many different campaigns are running.
  • View-through: the conversion is attributed to the last campaign ad that was viewed if there was no click between viewing the ad and converting, irrespective of how many different campaigns are running.

Apple Search Ads

If an app is installed as the result of a click on an Apple Search Ad, then Firebase logs a firebase_campaign event with those parameters, and you see the following data for campaign-related events:

  • Source = Apple
  • Medium = search
  • Campaign = <iad campaign name>

You must add the iAd framework to the Xcode project file for your app in order to track Apple Search Ads.

Discrepancies between Firebase and Google Ads conversion data

Circumstance Description
Campaign conversions in Firebase but not in Google Ads (or vice versa) If you see conversion data for a campaign in Firebase but not in Google Ads, then you have not completed one or both of the following:
If you have linked your Firebase and Google Ads accounts and you are seeing conversion data in Google Ads but not in Firebase, check whether you are sending conversion data directly to Google Ads from an app-analytics provider other than Firebase.
The number of conversions attributed to the same campaign is different in Google Ads and in Firebase during the same period This is expected. Google Ads registers a conversion based upon click date (the date when a user clicked an ad that led to a conversion). Firebase registers the conversion on the conversion date (the date when the user actually converted). If the click and the conversion didn't both occur during the time period you are using, then the number of conversions will be different in each reporting environment.
Campaign clicks in Firebase and Google Ads, but no conversions If you target a campaign for an iOS app to the Google Search Network, conversion tracking is not supported. Clicks are recorded, but conversions are not, so you will see click data for those campaigns in both Firebase and Google Ads, but there will be no conversion data.
Campaign clicks but no conversions in Google Ads, no Google Ads-attributed conversions in Firebase

If you have linked an Google Ads manager account to Firebase, but have imported conversions from one of the child accounts, those conversions will not appear in either Google Ads or Firebase.


To correct the problem, you need to import Firebase conversion events from the Google Ads manager account.

Different numbers of conversions in Firebase and Google Ads If your time-zone settings are different in Firebase and Google Ads, then you might see different numbers of conversions in each context. For example, if conversions are timestamped such that they fall within the date range you're using for reports in Firebase but outside the date range you're using in Google Ads, then you'll see fewer of those same conversions accounted for in the Google Ads reports.

A difference between attribution windows in Firebase and conversion windows in Google Ads can account for different numbers of conversions. For example, the attribution window in Firebase for the first_open event/conversion is 30 days. If in Google Ads you set the conversion window to 7 days for the same event/conversion, then Firebase is likely to account for a lot more first_open conversions than Google Ads.

 

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