HTTPS at Google
What is encryption?
What is HTTPS?
Why should I use HTTPS?
What is Google's HTTPS goal?
Why is encryption important?
Our communications travel across a complex network of networks in order to get from point A to point B. Throughout that journey they are susceptible to interception by unintended recipients who know how to manipulate the networks. Similarly, we’ve come to rely on portable devices that are more than just phones—they contain our photos, records of communications, emails, and private data stored in apps we permanently sign into for convenience. Loss or theft of a device means we’re vulnerable to someone gaining access to our most private information, putting us at risk for identity theft, financial fraud, and personal harm.
Encryption protects us in these scenarios. Encrypted communications traveling across the web may be intercepted, but their contents will be unintelligible. This is known as “ciphertext,” whereas unencrypted messages travel in “plaintext”. As for device encryption, without the PIN or code necessary to decrypt an encrypted device, a would-be thief cannot gain access to the contents on a phone and can only wipe a device entirely. Losing data is a pain, but it’s better than losing control over your identity.
What are some types of encryption?
Encryption in transit protects the flow of information from the end user to a third-party’s servers. For example, when you are on a shopping site and you enter your credit card credentials, a secure connection protects your information from interception by a third party along the way. Only you and the server you connect to can decrypt the information.
End-to-end encryption means that only the sender and recipients hold the keys to encrypt and decrypt messages. The service provider who controls the system through which the users communicate has no way of accessing the actual content of messages.
Encryption at rest protects information when it is not in transit. For example, the hard disk in your computer may use encryption at rest to make sure that someone cannot access files if your computer was stolen.
What protocols are included in these charts?
What protocols are considered encrypted?
Where can I find data about other protocols?
Why isn't Google Search included in the products graph?
Do you have accurate data before December 2013?
How do you measure HTTPS usage data?
Why are these 10 countries/regions chosen for HTTPS usage statistics?
HTTPS on top sites [archived]
What is meant by "Site works on HTTPS"?
What is meant by "Modern TLS config"?
As of February 2016, we assess that sites are offering modern HTTPS if they offer TLS v1.2 with a cipher suite that uses an AEAD mode of operation:
What is meant by "Default HTTPS"?
What are your data sources?
Is this list ordered in terms of popularity?
I'm a webmaster, my site is on this list and I need assistance in moving to HTTPS. Is Google offering to help?
What is a certificate authority?
What is a certificate?
Why is certificate transparency important?
The current model requires all users to trust that the hundreds of CA organizations will correctly issue certificates for any site. But there are sometimes cases where human error or impersonation can lead to mis-issuance of certificates. Certificate Transparency (CT) changes the issuance process to require that certificates be written to publicly verifiable, tamper-proof, append-only logs in order to be considered valid by the user's web browser. By requiring the certificates be written to these public CT logs, any interested party can examine all certificates issued by an authority. This in turn increases accountability for organizations, fostering a more reliable system. Eventually, browsers may not show the secure connection padlock when visiting a site with HTTPS unless the site's certificate has been logged in CT Logs.
Note that only the organization responsible for a given domain can know which certificates issued are authorized. If a certificate is not authorized, the domain user should follow up with the CA that issued it to determine appropriate steps.
What is a certificate transparency log?
Where do the certificates shown here come from?
Why doesn't my certificate appear here?
Why do some sites have more than one certificate issuer?
Why do some certificates list more than one DNS name?