Mathematical equations

Insert an equation

You can easily insert mathematical equations into your documents and collaborate on a single equation at once with multiple people. Follow these steps to add an equation to your document:

  1. Click the Insert drop-down menu and select Equation.
  2. Select the mathematical symbol you want to add from one of these menus:
    • Greek letters
    • General operators
    • Comparison and inclusion operators
    • Operators with variables
    • Arrows

  3. Click the symbol you'd like to include, and add numbers or substitute variables in the box. If you delete the box by mistake, simply click New equation, and then select an option from one of the menus.

    new equation

If you'd like to edit the equation afterwards, simply click the equation within the document and change it. If you don't see the equation toolbar, click View and select Show equation toolbar.

How to use automatic equation shortcuts

You can use automatic equation shortcuts to enter multiple symbols in an equation quickly. If you’re familiar with LaTeX, you'll recognize the text shortcuts below.

As an example, if you type "\alpha" in an equation followed by a space or a parenthesis, Google Docs will convert your typing to an alpha

You can easily add superscripts and subscripts by pressing the ‘^’ and ‘_’ keys, respectively.

These are the symbols and automatic equation shortcuts used in Google Docs:

Greek lettersGreek Letters

alpha \alpha
equation symbol \beta
equation symbol \gamma
equation symbol \delta
equation symbol \epsilon
equation symbol \varepsilon
equation symbol \zeta
equation symbol \eta
equation symbol \theta
equation symbol \vartheta
equation symbol \iota
equation symbol \kappa
equation symbol \lambda
equation symbol \mu
equation symbol \nu
equation symbol \xi
equation symbol \pi
equation symbol \varpi
equation symbol \rho
equation symbol \varrho
equation symbol \sigma
equation symbol \varsigma
equation symbol \tau
equation symbol \upsilon
equation symbol \phi
equation symbol \varphi
equation symbol \chi
equation symbol \psi
equation symbol \omega
equation symbol \Gamma
equation symbol \Delta
equation symbol \Theta
equation symbol \Lambda
equation symbol \Xi
equation symbol \Pi
equation symbol \Sigma
equation symbol \Upsilon
equation symbol \Phi
equation symbol \Psi
equation symbol \Omega

General operatorsGeneral operators

equation symbol \times
equation symbol \div
equation symbol \cdot
equation symbol \pm
equation symbol \mp
equation symbol \ast
equation symbol \star
equation symbol \circ
equation symbol \bullet
equation symbol \oplus
equation symbol \ominus
equation symbol \oslash
equation symbol \otimes
equation symbol \odot
equation symbol \dagger
equation symbol \ddagger
equation symbol \vee
equation symbol \wedge
equation symbol \cap
equation symbol \cup
equation symbol \aleph
equation symbol \Re
equation symbol \Im
equation symbol \top
equation symbol \bot
equation symbol \infty
equation symbol \partial
equation symbol \forall
equation symbol \exists
equation symbol \neg
equation symbol \angle
equation symbol \triangle
equation symbol \diamond

Comparison and inclusionComparison and inclusion operators

equation symbol \leq
equation symbol \geq
equation symbol \prec
equation symbol \succ
equation symbol \preceq
equation symbol \succeq
equation symbol \ll
equation symbol \gg
equation symbol \equiv
equation symbol \sim
equation symbol \simeq
equation symbol \asymp
equation symbol \approx
equation symbol \ne
equation symbol \subset
equation symbol \supset
equation symbol \subseteq
equation symbol \supseteq
equation symbol \in
equation symbol \ni
equation symbol \notin

Operators with variablesOperators with variables

equation symbol \frac
equation symbol \sum
equation symbol \sqrt
equation symbol \rootof
equation symbol \subsuperscript
equation symbol \subscript
equation symbol \superscript
equation symbol \abs
equation symbol \overline
equation symbol \widehat
equation symbol \tilde
equation symbol \bigcap
equation symbol \bigcup
equation symbol \prod
equation symbol \coprod
equation symbol \int
equation symbol \oint

ArrowsArrows

equation symbol \leftarrow
equation symbol \rightarrow
equation symbol \leftrightarrow
equation symbol \Leftarrow
equation symbol \Rightarrow
equation symbol \Leftrightarrow
equation symbol \uparrow
equation symbol \downarrow
equation symbol \updownarrow
equation symbol \Uparrow
equation symbol \Downarrow
equation symbol \Updownarrow