# COVARIANCE.S function

The COVARIANCE.S function calculates the covariance of a dataset, where the dataset is a sample of the total population.

## Parts of a COVARIANCE.S function

`COVARIANCE.S(data_y, data_x)`

 Part Description `data_y` The range representing the array or matrix of dependent data. `data_x` The range representing the array or matrix of independent data.

## Sample formulas

`COVARIANCE.S(A1:A10)`

`COVARIANCE.S(1, 2, 3, 4)`

`COVARIANCE.S(B1:B5, 10)`

## Notes

• Any text encountered in the `value` arguments will be ignored.
• Positive covariance indicates that the independent data and dependent data tend to change together in the same direction.
• Negative covariance indicates that they tend to change together in the opposite direction. An increase in one leads to a decrease in the other. The magnitude of covariance is difficult to interpret.

## Examples

 A B 1 data_1 data_2 2 2 4 3 5 3 4 7 6 5 1 1 6 8 5 7 8 9 Covariance Formula 10 4.65 `=COVARIANCE.S(A2:A6, B2:B6)` 11 7 `=COVARIANCE.S({1,3}, {-1,6})`

## Related functions

• COVAR: Calculates the covariance of a dataset.