# Database functions

**Syntax**

`Dfunction(Database, Field_str, Criteria)`

Where `D`

is one of the following:*function*

`DAVERAGE`

`DCOUNT`

`DCOUNTA`

`DGET`

`DMAX`

`DMIN`

`DPRODUCT`

`DSTDEV`

`DSTDEVP`

`DSUM`

`DVAR`

`DVARP`

**Type**

`Database`

Database functions are particularly handy when Google Sheets is used to maintain structured data, like a database. Each database function,

, computes the corresponding function on a subset of a cell range regarded as a database table. Database functions take three arguments:*Dfunction*

is a range, embedded array or array generated by an array expression that is structured so that each row after Row 1 is a database record, and each column is a database field. Row 1 contains the labels for each field.**Database**-

indicates which column (field) contains the values to be included in the result. This can be expressed as either the field name (text string) or the column number, where the left-most column would be represented as 1.**Field** -

is a range, embedded array or array generated by an array expression that is structured such that the first row contains the field name(s) to which the criterion (criteria) will be applied, and subsequent rows contain the conditional test(s).**Criteria**

The first row in `criteria`

specifies field names. Every other row in `criteria`

represents a filter, which is a set of restrictions on the corresponding fields. Restrictions are described using Query-by-Example notation, and can include a value to match or a comparison operator followed by a comparison value. An empty cell means no restriction on the corresponding field.

A filter matches a database row if all the filter restrictions (the restrictions in the filter's row) are met. A database row (record) satisfies `criteria`

if and only if at least one filter matches it. A field name may appear more than once in the `criteria`

range to allow multiple restrictions that apply simultaneously (for example, `temperature >= 65`

and `temperature <= 82`

).

`DGET`

is the only database function that doesn't aggregate values. `DGET`

returns the value of the field specified in the second argument (similarly to a `VLOOKUP`

) only when exactly one record matches `criteria`

; otherwise, it returns an error indicating no matches or multiple matches.