Does making a phone call in Gmail mean I have a Google Voice account?

If you do not already have a Google Voice account, making outbound phone calls through Gmail does not automatically give you a full Google Voice account. The initial Google Voice account that is created when making phone calls from Gmail does not contain all of the features of Google Voice like a unique Google phone number.

This initial account allows you to manage the basics for calling phones in Gmail such as calling credit and call history.

At this time users outside of the US cannot upgrade to a full Google Voice account and cannot receive phone calls in Gmail.